9.4). In: Phelps M, Mazziotta J, Schelbert H, editors. Since changes in biological function precede anatomic (structural) changes in a variety of diseases conditions, PET is uniquely capable of detecting cancer before it is evident through other diagnostic imaging tests (CT or MRI). Simultaneous MR/PET imaging of the human brain: feasibility study. An automatic method to determine cutoff frequency based on image power spectrum. 1995;36:121–30. Phelps ME, Mazziotta JC, Schelbert HR, editors. Determination of the optimum filter function for SPECT imaging. In: Bendriem B, Twonsend DW, editors. IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) In this chapter, we elaborate on the principles of PET, including instrumentation, relevant physical phenomena and corrections in image reconstruction, … PET system calibrations and corrections for quanitative and spatially accurate images. 1998;43(4):835–46. 2000;40:279. Berm RF, Schoonjans JM, Kieper DA, Majewski S, Goodman S, Civelek C. High-resolution scintimmography: a pilot study. The size of the … The tracer used for PET emits particles known as positrons. J Nucl Med. Conversely, SPECT is more widely accepted than PET because of its ability to concurrently detect multiple radionuclides. Quantitative measurement of emission tomography: theory, procedure and normal values. Oakes TR, Sossi V, Ruth TJ. Laval M, Moszynski M, Allemand R, Cormoreche E, Guinet P, Odru R, Vacher J. Barium Fluoride inorganic scintillator for subnanosecond timing. Radiologic Clinics of North America 45, 669–676, Fig. 1988;29:643–50. Positron emission tomography and autoradiography: principles and applications for the brain and heart. Huang S-C, Carson RE, Hoffman EJ, et al. Radiology. 2007;48(Suppl 2):432. J Nucl Med. This chapter will outline the fundamental principles of PET and technical considerations of cardiac PET imaging. Inadama N, Murayama H, Watanabe M, Omura T, Yamashita T, Kawai H, Orita N, Tsuda T. Performance of 256ch flat panel PS-PMT with small crystals for a DOI PET detector. Dordrecht/Boston: Kluwer; 1998. p. 11–50. Bao Q, Newport D, Chen M, Stout DB, Chatziioannou AF. 2006;51:2131–42. Shepp LA, Logan BF. 1974; NS-21:21–43. Damaged tissues have reduced metabolic activity; therefore, gamma radiation from these areas is … Moreover, PET is the gold standard for quantifying myocardial perfusion in absolute terms (ml/min/g) both at rest and stress, allowing for calculation of myocardial perfusion reserve (as a noninvasive alternative for CFR). PET technology is based on the ability to accurately detect and image positron-emitting radionuclides. 1989;36:1108–12. In the past few years, it has also been shown to have an increasing potential for application to clinical medicine. Graham MM, Peterson LM, Hayward RM. J Nucl Med. 1994;35:1308–12. Phys Med Biol. A true coincidence event happens when the photons are detected along the line connecting two detectors within the coincidence time window (Ollinger and Fessler, 1997). Uribe J, Baghaei H, Li H, et al. 2008;55:853–61. Part of Springer Nature. PET performance measurements using the NEMA NU 2–2001 standard. Levin CS, Foudray AMK, Habte F. Impact of high energy resolution detectors on the performance of a PET system dedicated to breast cancer imaging. 1991;36:939–52. Doshi NK, Shao YP, Silverman RW, Cherry SR. Design and evaluation of an LSO PET detector for breast cancer imaging. 1989;36:1034–7. At present, the most commonly used radio nucleotide in PET is 18 F conjugated with glucose to produce the fluorinated analog, 18 F-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). van Eijk CWE. Algorithms for calculating detector efficiency normalization coefficients for true coincidences in 3D PET. IEEE Trans Med Imag. Physical basis of positron emission tomography Positron emission tomography (PET) is based on the physical properties of isotopes – radioactive forms of simple atoms (like hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, … 2000;27:1943–54. Phys Med. Phys Med Biol. Zhang N, Thompson CJ, Cayouette F, Jolly D, Kecani S. A prototype modular detector design for high resolution positron emission mammography imaging. Phys Med Biol. In: Ter-Pogossian MM, Phelps ME, Brownell GL, editors. Cite as. J Nucl Med. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. 1981;28(9): 4582–9. PET scanner is a powerful, noninvasive, nuclear imaging technology. 1995;42:1012–7. Quantification may increase the diagnostic accuracy by enhancing substantially the sensitivity without loss of specificity, and in addition improves detection of multivessel disease . Daghighian F, Hoffman EJ, Huang SC. J Nucl Med. Performance characteristics of a new LSO PET/CT scanner with extended axial field-of-view and PSF reconstruction. Jacobson M, Levkovitz R, Ben-Tal A, et al. A rotating PET camera using BGO block detectors: design, performance and applications. J Nucl Med. Positrons are … 1998;17:9–23. P. Knaapen, M. Lubberink, in Advanced Cardiac Imaging, 2015. Time-of-flight positron emission tomography: status relative to conventional PET. Chesler DA, Riederer SJ. The most commonly used tracer drug is fluorodeoxyglucose and for this reason it is sometimes called an FDG-PET scan. Knoess C, Gremillion T, Schmand M, et al. IEEE Trans Med Imag. The half-lives of the high-energy probes is generally much shorter. In this analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of PET/CT were 93.90%, 92.06%, 92.44%, 75.49% and 98.31%, respectively, compared to standalone PET at 81.71%, 87.30%, 86.15%, 62.62%, and 94.83%, respectively (Yuan et al., 2006). 1983;3:1–7. Bowen SL, Wu Y, Chaudhari AJ, et al. PET has emerged nowadays as the imaging modality of choice to acquire images of physiological function, particularly in cancer research and clinical diagnosis (Gerd and Joel, 2006). Emission Tomography: The Fundamentals of PET and SPECT explains the physics and engineering principles of these important functional-imaging methods. The 18F− ion is known to selectively bind to hydroxyapatite, forming fluorapatite (Hsu et al., 2007) and therefore enhance image contrast. J Nucl Med. J Nucl Med. S. Vijayalakshmi, Savita, in Internet of Things in Biomedical Engineering, 2019. Positron emission tomography (PET) offers a number of unique advantages compared to other imaging modalities. Langen K-J, Braun U, Kops ER, et al. T1 - Principles of positron emission tomography imaging. Hutchins GD, Hichwa RD, Koeppe RA. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. To create 3D images, many projection images of the body at different time frames are needed. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The emergency of PET as the functional imaging modality of choice for diagnostic purposes, therapy, and assessment of recurrence in cancer has led to an increasing demand for this advanced technology. 2003;361:1405–10. Compared to PET/CT, the radiation dose is lower in PET/MRI . 2002;47:R85–106. Murthy K, Aznar M, Thompson CJ, Loutfi A, Lisbona R, Gagnon JH. (A)Basic positron emission tomography (PET) principle: a positron (e+) is emitted from the atomic nucleus together with a neutrino. 184.108.40.206. 1993;189:847–50. Performance evaluation of a whole-body PET scanner using the NEMA protocol. Recommendations on the use of 18F-FDG PET in oncology. 2009;56:633–9. 2008;26(5):712–20. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci. There is a waiting period while the metabolically active molecule (usually a sugar) becomes concentrated in tissues of interest, then the subject is placed in the imaging scanner. Farrell R, Entine G, et al ( Townsend et al., 2010 ) values. 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