Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary (mostly through translations into German, French and English). In 2016, it was planned that military spending the following year would be $1.21 billion, about 0.94% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%. Also, the national teams have produced some surprise successes such as beating Euro 2004 winner Greece 3–2 and 2006 FIFA World Cup winner Italy 3–1. Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority in 2014 and a third in 2018. The Hungarians met them at the battle of Mohacs on 29 August 1526. The Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the 1290s, and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period. , Budapest is the financial and business capital of Hungary. 2011. évi, 165. Hungary has a total length of approximately 1,314 km (816.48 mi) motorways (Hungarian: autópálya). , Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of styles: the main products of the country are elegant and full-bodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant (Eger) and full-bodied robust reds (Villány and Szekszárd). The first enlightened writers were Maria Theresia's bodyguards (György Bessenyei, János Batsányi and others). 199 Members of Parliament (országgyűlési képviselő) are elected to the highest organ of state authority, the unicameral Országgyűlés (National Assembly), every four years in a single-round first-past-the-post election with an election threshold of 5%. Hungary was founded before France, Germany, or England In Hungary, parents are required to name their child from a pre-approved list of names. Preschool-kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until the age of sixteen. According to the 2011 census, 9,896,333 people (99.6%) speak Hungarian in Hungary, of whom 9,827,875 people (99%) speak it as a first language, while 68,458 people (0.7%) speak it as a second language. The 2016 Global Peace Index ranked Hungary 19th out of 163 countries. The Little Entente, sensing an opportunity, invaded the country from three sides—Romania invaded Transylvania, Czechoslovakia annexed Upper Hungary (today's Slovakia), and a joint Serb-French coalition annexed Vojvodina and other southern regions.  The track was completely resurfaced for the first time in early 2016, and it was announced the Grand Prix's deal was extended for a further five years, until 2026.. 75% of its former pre-WW1 territories (325 411 km²) without fight and was subject to foreign occupation. On 15 March 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. Hungary sent a 300-strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war. In fact, there were two older Hungarian universities, one in Pécs (founded in 1367) and one in Óbuda (founded in 1395), but unlike Pázmány’s university they had not survived the country’s troubled history and […] Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man's dances from Transylvania, and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group. Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau (Wrocław). , In 2015 the Assembly of the Hungarian Olympic Committee and the Assembly of Budapest decided to bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics but eventually awarded to Paris. Dishes are often flavoured with paprika (ground red peppers), a Hungarian innovation.  The natural decrease in the first 10 months of 2016 was only 25,828 which was 8,162 less than the corresponding period in 2015. The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. According to Ibn Rustah, the Hungarian tribes were familiar with wine-making long time before the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Clay model of a wheeled cart, from a grave at Szigetszentmárton, Hungary, end of the 4th millennium. Hungarian troops fought on the Eastern Front for two years. With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in 1991, Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession. The dance is generally performed freestyle by one dancer at a time in front of a band. Andrew II issued the Diploma Andreanum which secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first Autonomy law in the world. In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. Committee for Medieval Studies. Amid political chaos, the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, John Zápolya and Ferdinand I of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1873, the old capital Buda and Óbuda were officially united with Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. When Rome lost control of Pannonia at the end of the 4th century (Christian tombs from this period in what is now Pécs were designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2000), it was occupied first by Germanic tribes, then by Slavs. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot (barack) and cherry (cseresznye). It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, due in large part to its social security system, universal health care, and tuition-free secondary education. These include the very eastern stretch of the Alps, Alpokalja, in the west of the country, the Transdanubian Mountains in the central region of Transdanubia, and the Mecsek Mountains and Villány Mountains in the south.  It is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, IIB, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, and the Visegrád Group. Kádár introduced new planning priorities in the economy, such as allowing farmers significant plots of private land within the collective farm system (háztáji gazdálkodás). The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. Amendments to Hungary's higher education law approved this week could force it …  This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election. The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary (1000–1038).  The Horthy government's complicity in the Holocaust remains a point of controversy and contention. For other uses, see, Current Structure of the National Assembly of Hungary, From the 18th century to World War I (1699-1918). From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD, Pannonia, the western part of the Carpathian Basin, was part of the Roman Empire.  In July 1849 the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed and enacted the first laws of ethnic and minority rights in the world. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers.  Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary was to remain without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability. As a NATO member, Hungary was involved in the Yugoslav Wars. Despite some successes on the Czechoslovak front, Kun's forces were ultimately unable to resist the Romanian invasion; by August 1919, Romanian troops occupied Budapest and ousted Kun. The capital Budapest has a special status and is not included in any county while 23 of the towns are so-called urban counties (megyei jogú város – town with county rights). Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture. The freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád (by tradition a descendant of Attila), settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. Hungarian National Cyber Security Center was re-organized in 2016 in order to become more efficient through cyber security.  There are about 54 Grandmasters and 118 International Masters in Hungary, which is more than in France or United Kingdom. The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. After Stalin's death in 1953, the Soviet Union pursued a program of destalinization that was inimical to Rákosi, leading to his deposition. The largest village is Solymár (population: 10,123 as of 2010) There are more than 100 villages with fewer than 100 inhabitants while the smallest villages have fewer than 20 inhabitants. The Eastern front of the Allied (Entente) Powers completely collapsed.  During the German occupation in May–June 1944, the Arrow Cross and Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews, mainly to Auschwitz. There is an urban legend in Hungarian culture that Austrian generals clinked their beer glasses to celebrate the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad in 1849.  On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic. In 1939, Hungary regained further territory from Czechoslovakia through force. Verbunkos is a solo man's dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the Austro-Hungarian army.  In 1514, the weakened old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by John Zápolya. The famous Hungarian hot river fish soup called Fisherman's soup or halászlé is usually a rich mixture of several kinds of poached fish. Jozsef Szajer of Hungary's ruling Fidesz party has admitted he was at an illegal gathering on Friday. Hungarian is the official and predominant spoken language in Hungary. The greatest poets of the time were Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Dániel Berzsenyi. The Kékes at 1,014 m or 3,327 ft is the tallest mountain in Hungary and is found here. (IX. In the 1980s, however, living standards steeply declined again due to a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond. This impressive structure is also one of the oldest legislative buildings in … Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), built in 1859 in Moorish Revival style with a capacity of 3,000 people, the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), completed in 1913 in Modern Renaissance Style and located in the Budapest city park, the biggest building in Hungary with its 268 metres (879 feet) length (the Parliament building), one of the largest basilicas in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), and the largest early Christian necropolis outside Italy (Pécs). , The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar ('Hungarian') and ország ('country').  Hungary hosts the main and regional headquarters of many international organizations as well, including European Institute of Innovation and Technology, European Police College, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Centre for Democratic Transition, Institute of International Education, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, International Red Cross, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Danube Commission and others..  Hungary spends 7.2% of GDP on healthcare, spending $2,045 per capita, of which $1,365 is provided by the government. They were then firmly established in the whole centre of the basin, over which their tribes and their associates distributed themselves. Stephen promulgated Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and his successors were traditionally known as the Apostolic Kings. The origin of the Magyars is a complex issue, not in the least helped by the similarity in English of the words 'Hun' and 'Hungary', which are not related. Following the First World War, Hungary underwent a period of profound political upheaval, beginning with the Aster Revolution in 1918, which brought the social-democratic Mihály Károlyi to power as Prime Minister. The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. The largest city is the capital, Budapest, the smallest town is Pálháza with 1038 inhabitants (2010).  The constrained Habsburg Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. By 1006, Stephen consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a Western feudal state. The Hungarian forces (Honvédség) defeated Austrian armies. The Hungarian public higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities. Aladár Árkay took almost the same route. It was in the beginning of the 18th-century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences. The only order founded by a Hungarian is the Order of St. Paul the Hermit, also known as Pauline Fathers, which is a monastic order of the Roman Catholic Church. A subordinate Joint Forces Command coordinates and commands the HDF.  Under his rule, in 1479, the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the Battle of Breadfield. 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