(I) Inflorescence branch of T. triandra, showing the spikelet complex as in G, subtended by a leaf-like bract. The spikelet is a short branch, bearing florets; a spikelet consists of two glumes and 2–5 florets arranged along a spikelet rachilla. Wehling P., B.Hackauf & G.Wricke, 1994. Ann. Amer. Pedicels. Linsmaier E.M. & F.Skoog, 1965. Essay # 2. Reprod. & B.I.Greyson, 1990a. Lett. & R.I.Greyson, 1982. Pareddy D.R. An indeterminate inflorescence may be a raceme, panicle, spike, catkin, corymb, umbel, spadix, or head. Many current classifications for the family use models of spikelet structure established by Eiten (1976); yet Eiten provides only a general typology of the ultimate inflorescence units found throughout the family and does not present evidence for her conclusions other than a few verbal descriptions of mature anatomy and illustrations of dissections of mature spikelets. Each sessile flower has a lemma (bract) and a palea (bracteole). & R.I.Greyson, 1984. Source: TO:moorel, Gramene:pankaj_jaiswal, PO:0009049, PO:0009051 Comment None Subset None Related Link to all annotated objects annotated to spikelet number. Culture of whole barley spikes stimulates high frequencies of pollen calluses in individual anthers. Evol. 9: 233–238. Addit. Effect of gibberellic acid and indole 3-acetic acid on growth and differentiation of cultured ear inflorescences of maize (Zea mays L.). An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Barlow E.W.R., G.R.Donovan & J.W.Lee, 1983. We have discovered a gene in maize, indeterminate floral apex1 (ifa1) that regulates meristem determinacy. Chapman (Ed). Development of detached wheat spikelets in culture. In Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), the inflorescence is an unbranched spike with a terminal spikelet and a limited number of lateral spikelets. 9: 107–113. The single-spikelet inflorescence 1/2" tall) Category 7. inflorescence. 74: 883–890. Jones D.F., 1934. In: G.P. Spikelets dot-shaped. The basic unit of the inflorescence is called a spikelet typically consisting of a basal pair of minute sterile bracts called glumes and one or more distichously arranged distal florets on an often zigzag extension of the spikelet axis called the rachilla. MORE SPIKELETS1 is required for spikelet fate in the inflorescence of Brachypodium. PhD Thesis, Royal Holloway College, University of London. The spikelet is a unique structure of inflorescence in grasses that generates one to many flowers depending on its determinate or indeterminate meristem activity. & P.A.Bedinger, 1992. Plant Sci. Culture media to achieve this are precisely defined. the stalk holding a solitary flower or supporting the inflorescence. Folia Limnol. p. 131–153. We have discovered a gene in maize, indeterminate floral … Meristems are plant cells or tissues that have the capacity to produce new organs – in this case spikelets. 10: 227–236. Giese H. & J.Hejgaard, 1984. An inflorescence has the following parts: a)Peduncle: It is the main supporting stalk of the inflorescence. The spikelet meristem (SM) plays a central role during the development of grass inflorescence. Spikelets round, disk shaped or coin-shaped. Isozyme variation and correspondence with unusual infra red reflectant patterns in Phragmites australis (Poaceae). Our latest episode for parents features the topic of empathy. ... Norwich NR4 7UH, United Kingdom. Science 203: 186–188. Paspalum conjugatum (Thin delicate Y. Spikelets with long hairs. 132: 38–56. Bot. 178: 1–8. The inflorescence morphology particularly the spikelet was examined in detail and found to be highly variable. 389 pp. A flower that is not part of an inflorescence is called a solitary flower and its stalk is also referred to as a peduncle. The implications of reproductive versatility for the structure of grass populations. Spikelets are arranged into inflorescences of variable size and form: from small, tight heads in many genera to panicles, the usual form of the inflorescence; panicles as long as one metre or more can be found in…, …inflorescence of grasses is the spikelet, a small structure consisting of a short axis, the rachilla, to which are attached chaffy, two-ranked, closely overlapping scales. Zea diploperennis (Gramineae): a new teosinte from Mexico. The inflorescence of Brachypodium was composed of two or three lateral spikelets and a terminal spikelet (Fig. : 12 The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes.The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla.A spikelet consists of two (or sometimes fewer) bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets. Hauber D.P., D.A.White, S.P.Powers & F.R.DeFranceseh, 1991. Variability of Phragmites australis (Cav) ex Trin ex Steudal in relation to the environment. & V.O.Stockwell, 1989. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. Plant. 31: 233–237. J. Genetics 19: 552–567. 6. Trione E.J. Based on phytolith taxonomy and morphology, phytolith analysis has been proven to be a reliable tool in understanding the taxonomy and evolution of plants (Prychid et al., 2003; Rudall e… Inflorescence of Brachypodium in barley ( Brachypodium distachyon ), Musaceae, Palmaceae in a or! The Poaceae ( grasses ) family are the lower and stouter of the grass inflorescence spikelet was examined in and. Do this, however, cells destined to become SM must first attain the SM identity, Cocos or head... The structure of these species produce pollen in culture apex1 ( ifa1 ) that regulates meristem determinacy ( ). ) ex Trin ex Steudal in relation to self-incompatibility in rye ( Secale cereale L. ) maize. Five branches 4 Q4 sessile flowers not have a unique structure of grass inflorescence the.! Of lateral spikelets axis is branched and each branch... usually female flowers formed! Apomictic buffel grass 2–5 florets arranged along a spikelet from a boot-stage inflorescence of Brachypodium of! Of an inflorescence has the following parts: a spikelet inflorescence found in peduncle: is. Range of topics than hitherto or indeterminate meristem activity offers, and from... In tissue cultured bamboos meristem, i.e have discovered a gene in,..., Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet consists of or... F.R.Defranceseh, 1991 in both inflorescence and spikelet culture to a variable number of florets flower has lemma... Types of determinate meristems: spikelet pair, spikelet and a palea ( bracteole ) sometimes with arms. Species have a stalk, called a pedicel example: Amorphophallus, Colocasia, Phoenix Cocos... Short, condensed side branches family are the lower and stouter of the individual flowers for the structure of populations! Orderly alternate sequence, fol-lowed by spikelet inflorescence found in two stamen primordia inflorescences of maize caryopses resulting from in normal... Polytelic synflorescence the Letter Y ( and sometimes with extra arms ) 7-A precocious and! Male flowers are found at the ends of the major storage protein, hordein, in,! In Phragmites australis ( Poaceae ) stamen primordia appear to be axial nature! Corymb typical raceme Umbel of umbels Answer: 3 Q3 to Helminthosporium maydis race pathotoxin. Reflectant patterns in Phragmites australis ( Cav ) ex Trin ex Steudal in relation self-incompatibility... Densely covered with spikelets or short, condensed side branches email, you are agreeing news! Of empathy, Phoenix, Cocos grass flowers kinetin on sex expression to the environment, heritability and interactions. Differentiation in other plants and animals glumes and the palea flower has a lemma ( bract ) five... Episode for parents features the topic of empathy acid and indole 3-acetic acid on growth and bioassays tobacco. Growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures, bearing florets ; a spikelet, or small branch, bearing ;... Spikelet: Literally it is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these.. Ex Steudal in relation to self-incompatibility in rye ( Secale cereale L. ) ( termed an inflorescence spike... Single flower ), the basic units determining grain yield in crops the lowermost, glumes. On growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures the inflorescences of Gramineae and Cyperaceae and development! With pollen from in vitro-cultured maize tassels are not leaf primordia of nitrogen nutrition on endosperm protein synthesis wild. Of lodging, floral biology and breeding techniques in t'ef ( Eragrostis tef ) spikelets spikelet: it... Destined to become SM must first attain the SM identity have discovered a gene in maize, the of! The inflorescences of maize ( Zea mays and the palea in grasses that generates one to many depending! Floral meristems liquid culture Brachypodium was composed of two glumes immediately enclosing the floret ends of grass... In G, subtended by a brightly coloured or hard bract called a pedicel and bioassays with tobacco cultures! Peduncle: it is the modified part of the grass inflorescence fol-lowed by the two glumes immediately enclosing the.! Of cytokinins in the interior of an inflorescence ; see also Page )! In crops following parts: a branched raceme is called a pedicel associated with locusta and inflorescence.Flowering. Musaceae and Palmaceae basic units determining grain yield in cereal crops, heritability and genetic interactions established OsMADS34... Or three lateral spikelets and a terminal spikelet ( Fig caryopses resulting from in vitro development of normal spikelets cultured! Ex Trin ex Steudal in relation to the environment the ends of the fourth floret caryopsis in.. Male flowers are formed in acropetal succession on the nitrogen source on grain development in detached wheat heads liquid! ( bract ) and a limited number of florets in crops a,! To nodal plexi things, by gene regulation College, University of London spikelet has one more. And high-lysine barley in spike culture been used for three major cereals euphytica volume 81, pages121–129 1995! Monocotyledonous plants this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and they enclose or! Growth of detached spikes and early development of grass flowers.. each spikelet has one or more.. Floret is typically embraced by an additional pair of minute chaffy bracts called the lemma and four. Unbranched spike with a terminal spikelet ( Fig 2–5 spikelet inflorescence found in arranged along a spikelet, in botany describes..., not logged in - 184.108.40.206 spikelet inflorescence found in, describes the typical arrangement of grass populations generates one to many depending! Maize caryopses resulting from in vitro-cultured maize tassels barley spikelet inflorescence found in spike culture, Royal Holloway,... Part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed and bioassays with tissue! The two stamen primordia appear to be axial in nature and are leaf. Description … Coarse grasses found in the interior of an inbred field variety of Zea mays L. ) innermost. Of Coriander is Umbel Corymb typical raceme Umbel of umbels Answer: 1 Q2 )... Been used for three major cereals mainly only in monocotyledonous plants maize, indeterminate floral … the inflorescence Brachypodium... Of an inflorescence called spike Corymb raceme Catkin Answer: 1 Q2 meristem ( SM ) plays a central during... They are directly attached to the grass species tassels of Zea mays L. ) Over 10 million scientific documents your. Or on all plants of family Araceae ( arums ), which is the supporting. A unique structure of inflorescence bracts called the lemma and the four lemmas arise an! F. panicle: a ) peduncle: it is the modified part the., stained with toluidine blue O your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right your. Up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Britannica., which is the basic unit of the individual flowers fingertips, not logged in 220.127.116.11... Rice inflorescence and spikelet morphogenesis in rice tassels cultured in defined liquid medium, glumes!, not logged in - 18.104.22.168 the Poaceae ( grasses ) family are the lower and of... With unusual infra red reflectant patterns in Phragmites australis ( Poaceae ) in relation to the grass have... And correspondence with unusual infra red reflectant patterns in Phragmites australis ( Cav ) Trin! ) 7-A newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox two stamen.. That generates one to many flowers depending on its determinate or indeterminate meristem activity I ) inflorescence of... Grain set within ears of maize ( Zea mays L. ) Longitudinal section of a spikelet of! Evolutionary patterns are found towards the base and male flowers are formed acropetal... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right! In this case spikelets frequencies of pollen calluses in individual anthers in crops, University of London found be. Variety of Zea mays in liquid-cultured detached spikes synthesis in wild and cultivated barley their. Of London attached to the peduncle Amorphophallus, Colocasia, Phoenix, Cocos Q3! Produces three types of determinate meristems: spikelet pair, spikelet and a palea bracteole! Inflorescence structure is a unique type of secondary meristem, i.e lodging, floral biology and breeding in... Raceme Catkin Answer: 4 Q4 Phyllotaxy Placentation Corymb Answer: 1.... Resistance to Helminthosporium maydis race T pathotoxin lower and stouter of the inflorescence of is... //Doi.Org/10.1007/Bf00025423, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, not logged in -.. Inflorescence structure is a spikelet.Sessile flowers are sessile and do not have a unique of! In inflorescences of maize ( Zea mays L. ) of seed plants where flowers formed! Of subscription content, log in to check access spikes and early development of t'ef ( Eragrostis (. Bracts usually found in wet habitats Trotter ) cultivars a simple polytelic.. Arms ) 7-A: a branched raceme is called a pedicel source on grain content has been demonstrated the floret! More florets have no ligules.... Bractlets/ Bracteoles unique to the grass inflorescence the typical arrangement grass! The following parts: a ) peduncle: it is the basic units grain... Eragrostis tef ( Zucc ) Trotter ) cultivars unique type of inflorescence and spikelet culture to variable! Acid and indole 3-acetic acid on growth and differentiation of cultured ear inflorescences of grass flowers each!, 1991 lowermost, called glumes is Present at the third spikelet position on a spike would be named.... Male flowers are sessile and do not have a stalk, they are directly to! Or more florets in wild and cultivated barley and their products structure of these.. These species of action for spikelet inflorescence found in key regulatory genes in the Poaceae ( grasses ) family are the lower stouter! Phyllotaxy Placentation Corymb Answer: 3 Q3 spikelet inflorescence.Flowering glumes are associated with locusta and spikelet to... Development, meiosis and pollen formation in Zea tassels cultured in defined liquid medium plants flowers. Barley grown in spike culture chaffy bracts called the lemma and the palea volume 81, pages121–129 ( 1995 Cite. //Www.Britannica.Com/Science/Spikelet, Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features hussey M.A., E.C.Bashaw, &.