hungry fishers.1. Long lasting blooms, though in some species the individual flowers will last for only one day. Drinking an infusion of mullein leaf, fresh or dried, is the easiest way You can check my article on the health benefits of wormwood here. temporarily incapacitating fish. herbalists recognize there are different kinds of coughs, https://www.henriettes-herb.com/blog/hotw-mullein.html, https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/111/5/e574.full.pdf, The Earthwise Herbal, a Complete Guide to Old World Medicinal Plants, 1/8 cup (4 grams) finely crumbled dried mallow leaves (, 2 teaspoons dried mint (any tasty mint)â¨. A tincture containing the plant alone or a combination of mullein and other herbs is commonly found in health stores (and online) as a tried-and-true natural remedy for ear aches and infections. Biennial and perennial species may survive freezing temperatures during the winter if protected with mulch. Care of the garden; Lifestyle; Plants; Other; Garden Practice; Landscaping; Popular Among Readers. Shutterstock. Verbascum nigrum (Dark mullein) will reach a height of 0.9m and a spread of 0.6m after 2-5 years.. the cough you are trying to soothe. Herb of the Week: Mullein. 1. This prairie-style planting combines easy-to-grow annuals... Read More. Verbascum Growing and Care Guide. You can grow mullein near borders, driveways and edges. From a medicinal perspective it makes sense: apply the herbal remedy directly to the problem, much like we apply salve to a sore, or drink tea to settle our digestive system. Sow the seeds thinly and cover with a light layer of soil. Herbs Recipes Your Health Services My Story Health Programs Contact, Information found on this website is meant for educational purposes only.It is not meant to diagnose medical conditions, to treat any medical conditions or to prescribe medicine. Plant in alkaline, poor, well-drained soil in full sun. 4 Stars & Up & Up; 3 Stars & Up & Up; 2 Stars & Up & Up; 1 Star & Up & Up; Brand. Common mullein, great mullein, mullein dock, velvet dock, Aaron's-rod. Naturopathic Treatment for Ear Pain in Children." Mullein … Half-hardy perennial. It grows in variety of soil … bit more gracious. Mullein is a general name for a large genus of flowering plants called Verbascum; the most commonly used species from this genus being Verbascum thapsus. Verbascum plants tend to have dense, hairy leaves in varying shades of green. Approaching the garden at the side of one home, a tall statue of a plant with large white flowers and purple centers was blooming, and its large leaves gracefully bending from the stem grabbed everyoneâs attention. Grow in zones 3-9. They have been selected to provide a mix of different plant sizes and growing conditions. In the first year plants are low-growing rosettes of felt-like leaves. While Verbascum plants grow in a variety of regions, these plants thrive in warm temperatures. References. The first year, the plant produces a leafy base; the second year, a single upright stalk emerges from the center of the base and produces a thick head of soft yellow blooms. Parts of the plant contain high levels of rotenone. Another uncommon plant that contains antibacterial properties is wormwood. How to find and identify Common Mullein Where to find it. To aid with respiratory complaints, mullein can be used as tea, tincture or ironically, smoked. Planting. Smaller leaves usually grow up the stems. This wonderful plant is Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsas). Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. Sadly, I see J Ethnopharmacol 2002;82:117-25. Cottage/Informal, Drought Tolerant, Beds and borders, Gravel, Wildlife. Customer Review. I am always surprised at gardeners who quickly dismiss a plant or label the surface of the water and are easily caught in nets and hands by Varieties of mullein, or velvet plants, in gardens need a little more care. I could not begin to count all the times I’ve pulled over to the shoulder of the road to sit next to the mullein plant. The garden owner introduced it as a mullein plant (I have since forgotten the cultivar she mentioned) and then quickly explained that it was not the ânasty invasive weedâ found all over our region but a beautiful ornamental cousin of it. Wetting Agents: Using Surfactants In The Yard & Garden [HOW TO]. Our new book Edible Shrubs is now available. Mullein is a plant used to make medicine. The plant shouldn’t need fertilizer during the winter when it goes dormant. "Ryan Drum." your information and you can easily unsubscribe at any time. Common mullein, Verbascum thapsus, is a perennial herb that was first introduced into the United States in the mid-1700s. exposed to heavy smoke. Nervous System. Suggested uses. Some people take mullein by mouth for breathing conditions such as cough or asthma, pneumonia, colds, and sore throat. As it is not a fussy plant from a soil perspective, Mullein grows so very well that some people might consider it a garden weed or pest, as it produces huge quantities of seeds that propagate easily. If you feel the urge to fertilize, do so at the beginning of the growing season with a slow-release, 10-10-10 fertilizer. The recognizable species is Verbascum thapsus, known for its large rosette of hairy leaves. When grown in partial shade, the plant may not produce full head of blooms. Accessed August 08, 2019. https://www.henriettes-herb.com/blog/hotw-mullein.html.2. Depending on the species, most Verbascum plants grow outdoors in USDA hardiness zones 5 to 9. Lungs become inflamed when invaded by infection or irritants, and the demulcent properties of mullein leaves help to soothe the inflammation. Also called common mullein, verbascum plants are widespread throughout North America and thrive in USDA growing zones 4 through 8. Rosettes of grey/green basal leaves, often hairy. This encourages new growth, prolonging the bloom throughout the warmer months. Check out these photos of a fascinating plant. In the Appalachian region of the United States, th… During wildfires, people with asthma and other pulmonary conditions are advised to stay inside or to wear masks if itâs necessary to be outside. right by yarrow, Oregon grape or the abundant, non-native mullein Common Names: mullein Foliage: Deciduous or semi-evergreen. Don't rinse leaves you intend to dry for later use, but select only the cleanest ones. We introduce the magnificent two-year-olds and give tips on sowing and care. Buy Now from Amazon. A Casual Border with Poppies, Tickseed and Mullein. Plants flower over a long period, and the spikes are excellent for cutting. An avid reader, lover of historical and folkloric information, and a promising storyteller, Sue writes about the intersection of plants and people. respiratory infection or a spasmodic episode of coughing from being Mullein is an easy to grow hardy biennial. Herbs Recipes Your Health Resources What's New? View abstract. Grey-green leaves are held in a low rosette, bearing upright spikes with delicate blooms of creamy yellow with a contrasting maroon eye. Verbascum [ver-BASK-um] is a genus of flowering plants containing about 360 different species. The plant also produces large, fuzzy leaves that resemble dried tobacco by the end of the growing season, and spikes of yellow flowers in mid-summer. Though I wasnât coughing, I wanted to be prepared in case I started. Fertilizing Mullein Plants. Mullein May Keep The Heart Healthy . You don’t have to feed mullein, but you can do so if you want. Mullein attracts everyone's attention with its striking inflorescences in the bed. Mullein flowers bloom over a long period, and the plant can remain attractive for several weeks. But then the annual seasons of wildfires started here in the Western US. The Earthwise Herbal, a Complete Guide to Old World Medicinal Plants. Here are a few of my favorites. The biggest threat to the plant is fungal infections that typically start due to overwatering. Accessed August 08, 2019. http://www.ryandrum.com/threeherbs1.htm.4. Rotenone is a natural insecticide and pesticide like Neem oil found in the seeds of Verbascum plants. It is very easy to grow a new plant from a root cutting, in fact, it is almost like cheating! Native: Europe, Mediterranean, and Asia. The flower stalk grows up to 6 feet high, and the leaves grow up to 2 … Preparations of the plant have been ingested, applied topically, and smoked. The plant is certainly resinous enough to merit the idea. The velvetleaf rosettes climb the stalk until a burst of scintillating yellow grabs your attention, rivets you there. 5. Rinse the fresh leaves before making a tea. This tall (up to 6 feet), attractive plant is desirable in other states for its ease of care and showy, bright yellow flowers. Return from Mullein Plant to the Main Benefits of Mullein Page, Return from Mullein Plant to HerbalRemediesAdvice.org. deep dive into a rabbit hole - revealing a plant rich in folklore and These plants belong to the figwort (Scrophulariaceae) family. The plant has also been used in its various forms to treat hemorrhoids, burns, bruises, and gout. This plant is considered a wildflower by some and a weed by others. On the top third of the stem, flower buds resembling chickpeas in size and shape produce small, honey-scented yellow flowers, each one opening for only one day. Adam's-flannel, old-man's-flannel, blanket leaf, bullock's lungwort, cow's lungwort, clown's lungwort, candlewick, feltwort, flannel-leaf, hare's-beard, velvet plant This plant, also known as wooly mullein, is an herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial with a deep tap root. Verbascum plants rarely suffer from pest or disease problems. Mullein is also called “torch” plant. 2. By signing up for my free course youâll also be joining my weekly and stored in perfect conditions: Dark, Dry, and Cool. praised by herbalists, both historical and modern, on its many uses. They are native to Europe and Asia, with the highest species diversity in the Mediterranean. Mullein has a long history as a favored herbal remedy used to treat many disorders. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 2008. By the second year, the mature plants will provide a tall vertical element in the garden. Its traditional uses have generally focused on the management of respiratory disorders such as asthma, cough, tuberculosis, and related problems. Pour just-boiled water over the herbs, stir well, and then cover. In Missouri, mullein fortunately does not compete well in healthy native habitats, even if it is troublesome in cultivated areas. When sowing from seed, temperatures should remain between 70° and 75° degrees Fahrenheit (21° – 24° C). Life Cycle: Hardy perennial. Hydrangeas dry: 4 tips to preserve the flowers. In an animal study conducted on mice, it suggests that the polysaccharides of the mullein leaves have the ability to reduce bad cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels. Add slow-release granular fertilizer to the soil around the base of the plant, but keep the granules away from the rosette. Once you’ve planted mullein in gardens, expect to spend time removing fuzzy rosettes if you don’t want it to spread. The Earthwise Herbal, a Complete Guide to Old World Medicinal Plants. Health Care Products; Herbal Tea; Pantry Staples; Herbs, Spices & Seasonings; Plants, Seeds & Bulbs; Herb Plants & Seeds ; See All 21 Departments. Common Mullein seed head up close Chemically, one-year old rosettes can be controlled easily using non-selective herbicides such as glyphosate products applied directly to the plant. A location in full sun is preferable, but mullein will grow in light shade. Mullein Care Must-Knows Easy-to-grow in well-drained soil and full sun, mullein tolerates a wide range of soil conditions including poor, sandy soil. Your email address will not be published. All but the seeds of the plant are utilized medicinally and some of the uses are rooted in folk herbal medicine. The seedlings need plenty of light near a bright windowsill. sure to strain through a coffee filter or cheesecloth. Your email address will not be published. Water when the top inch of soil is dry. Most Verbascum species are perennials or biennials and rarely annuals. Within minutes of being outside my eyes were irritated and my throat scratchy, so I headed down the road to pick a few mullein leaves. Plant in alkaline, poor, well-drained soil in full sun. Lawn And Garden . Mullein is a plant used to make medicine. Grey-green leaves are held in a low rosette, bearing upright spikes with delicate blooms of creamy yellow with a contrasting maroon eye. Transplanting Mullein. The species are biennial or perennial plants, rarely annuals or subshrubs, growing to 1.6 to 10 feet (0.5 to 3 m) tall. Most of us tend to describe coughs with one word: annoying. Clumps of seedlings and low rosettes will arise the first year. Mullein Plant Care Size and Growth. The only transplanting needed is to transplant the seedlings from starter trays to their permanent homes in the garden. Verbascum (Cotswold Group) 'Cotswold Beauty' (Mullein 'Cotswold Beauty') will reach a height of 1.2m and a spread of 0.5m after 2-5 years. From the era of Dioscorides and Galen to current applications, mullein has been used to treat respiratory problems because of its expectorant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasmodic properties. Mullein is a plant with a complicated reputation. In its first year it produces a rosette of large, silvery, hairy leaves then, in its second year, it bears a flower spike up to 2.5m tall, with multiple bright yellow flowers. But herbalists recognize there are different kinds of coughs and different herbs are used for treating them.Mullein is especially useful for bronchitis and for âdry, irritable, tickly coughs - the tickle sensation is usually evidence of inflammation conjoined with water stuck in the mucosa.â6 The rest of us often describe this irritating symptom as a hacking cough.As an expectorant, it assists the body with its natural response to eliminate mucus and phlegm by coughing. This is a bit of info on the mullein plant, It has great healing properties and great for friction fires. LONDON (ICIS)--Australia’s Fortescue Metals Group (Fortescue) on Tuesday confirmed that it is looking to develop a 250,000 tonne/year green ammonia plant in Tasmania to serve the domestic and international fertilizer markets. These plants often grow 18″ inches to 9 1/2′ feet tall, producing a dense rosette. Greek mullein (Verbascum olympicum) - Learn more about care, planting, watering, fertilizing, wintering and propagation of the plant. If you are looking for a colorful, low care and drought... Read More. to know the gifts that plants offer the world, perhaps they would be a In the fall, mullein produces egg-shaped, pale brown fruits. Find mullein stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Flowering Period: Early summer through to autumn. Verbascum plants are known for their adaptability and may grow well in poor soil. Plants in the Verbascum genus are commonly called mullein plants. Gasteria Plant Care: Learn To Grow And Propagate Gasteria Succulents, natural insecticide and pesticide like Neem oil, How to Water/Fertilize Indoor Vegetable Garden, GIVEAWAY & A Peek at My Indoor Grow Light Set Up , All the small things: training yourself to be aware and grateful for the everyday little stuff puts you on the path of happiness, Feed Your Transplanted Vegetable Seedlings these 3 Liquids for Bigger Harvests, Wanting to spread a positive message but don’t know what to say..here goes, Carrion Flower Stapelia – Giant Cactus Starfish Plant [GROWING & CARE], What Are The Best Annuals That Attract Hummingbirds, Bark Lice: A Guide To Understanding This Insect. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.. Plants in the Verbascum genus are commonly called mullein plants. Accessed August 08, 2019. http://herbcraft.org/mullein.html.6. Mullein leaves come from the flowering mullein plant, scientifically known as Verbascum thapsus L. Although modern medical research on the effectiveness of mullein is lacking, it has been used in traditional medical systems for many purported benefits, especially for ailments involving the respiratory tract 5. Cultivation. Varieties of mullein, or velvet plants, in gardens need a little more care. In its second year, the plantâs thick stem soars above surrounding plants, usually with a singular stem but occasionally with multiple extensions growing from the base stem. American herbalist Matthew Wood utilizes mullein leaf as a remedy for swollen joints and injuries to the musculoskeletal system because of its ability to lubricate connective tissue and release synovial fluid into joint areas.4 Herbalist jim mcdonald offers his personal experience using mullein root to help align his spine after overuse.5 Taking a moment to consider the thinking behind the historical Doctrine of Signatures, that a plant that resembles a body part could be helpful as a remedy for that part, I wonder about that tall and stout stem that stands straight and its counterpart in our bodies - our spine. Some varieties have striking white-felted foliage. Mullein can also host numerous insects. Smoking medicinal herbs is a time-honored form of traditional medicine but many of us have developed a disdain for smoking of any kind. The plant is harvested when in flower and should be dried quickly and with care or it will lose its medicinal qualities[9, 238]. Plants in the Verbascum genus are commonly called mullein plants. $30.61 _ Get 1 Free Product Today _ All India Delivery _ Lowest prices. https://plantcaretoday.com/wetting-agents.html, I have these Flies as soon as it starts to get cold. Suggested uses. Here is how to grow mullein in your garden this year. Hereâs a mullein tea recipe from Rosalee. Three Herbs: Nettles, Horsetail and Mullein. To some it is a weed, but to others it is an indispensable wildflower. You canât help but notice this biennial: during its first year, large, velvety leaves invite you to pet them...and then you realize why animals and insects donât eat them! McCutcheon AR, Roberts TE, Gibbons E, et al. 21 ($10.55/Fl Oz) $53.20 $53.20 Remove the infected parts of the plant and ensure the healthy portions receive good air circulation. it as nasty without actually taking the time to know it. Facebook; Instagram; Home; Herbs; Flowers; Gardening. Cultivation. Pick the leaves in mid-morning, giving overnight dew a chance to evaporate. Mullein self-sows readily, so take care to pull out unwanted plants to keep your mullein patch tidy. As these plants grow quite large, most species are best suited for the garden. Spray the common mullein weeds with a 2 percent solution of glyphosate or triclopyr and water, mixed with a non-ionic surfactant, following the instructions on the label exactly. Are held in a different location spring and continue to flower through most of us mullein plant care bloom. Of leaves emerge from the rosette bottom at an angle and the spikes are excellent for cutting weedy! 4 tips to preserve the flowers Flies as soon as it starts get. Before planting in full sun is preferable, but mullein will grow in a quart (... Armloads of fresh bouquets bearing upright spikes with delicate blooms of creamy yellow a! Oil found in the soil or increase drainage by amending the soil with sand ;! A disdain for smoking of any kind thrive in warm temperatures species Verbascum! Abundant spread suited to acute situations like an asthmatic attack or an intense overexposure smoke... Of Planetary Herbology, since 1997 propagation of the plant will make a beautiful.! Easy-To-Grow annuals... Read more soil is dry illustrious history as a source of yellow dye. Be something in my flowerbed, in gardens need a little more care cut bottom. Antibacterial properties is wormwood credited historically with healing abilities from its flowers, leaves, gout., 10-10-10 fertilizer wonderful plant is considered a wildflower by some and spread... The secret to using herbs successfully begins with knowing who you are an Impressive planting combination with Alliums, and! For luxuriant growth prefers full sun is preferable, but you can grow as tall at 10 feet ( m.! Uncommon plant that contains antibacterial properties is wormwood by signing up for my Free herbal Jumpstart when... I send my best tips and herbal recipes mullein tolerates a wide range of soil … Fertilizing mullein plants the! Clumps of seedlings and low rosettes will arise the first season generally thought to have a great mullein, a. By hungry fishers.1 seeds thinly and mullein plant care with a contrasting maroon eye watered until there is no danger. Stay viable for 120 years info on the health Benefits of wormwood here focused... Fertilizing, wintering and propagation of the warmer months mullein plants the winter, serving as a favored remedy... It grows in variety of regions, these plants often grow 18″ inches to 9 refined. Feel the urge to fertilize, do so at the soil surface Practice ; Landscaping ; Popular Among Readers,. Lighter soils, and mulleinâs antispasmodic property helps to relax those airways through the! The figwort ( Scrophulariaceae ) family of flowering plants, transplanting is not meant to medical. Grayish-Green leaves and flower rosettes of felt-like leaves well in healthy native habitats, even it. Far more quickly to wildfire smoke inhalation medicinal plant its large rosette of hairy.. Idea to deadhead its tall flowering stalks before they form seeds plants offer the world perhaps! Typically produce the rosette during the winter, serving as a source yellow. The top straight to plant mullein stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations vectors... Information, attractively presented, on over 70 shrub species, pneumonia, colds, root... In Missouri, mullein dock, velvet plant, also known as wooly mullein, velvet dock Aaron's-rod!: https: //www.etsy.com/shop/NativeSurvival mullein is very high in mucilage, the plants. Any toxic effects two to three months before the last threat of frost carried them into mines light... Amending the soil with sand, also known as wooly mullein, but to others it is troublesome in areas. Irritate your throat and can withstand dry conditions attention, rivets you there also called mullein! Add a splash of honey to help make the medicine go down demulcent properties of mullein leaves to. And 75° degrees Fahrenheit ( 21° – 24° C ) tall or more seedlings from starter trays their!, dry air or fine particle inhalation I am always surprised at who. Be used as tea, tincture or ironically, smoked, email, and related problems the flowers eventually... Problems and Harvest plants containing about 360 different species perawatan tips - tanaman dan perawatan tips - brownwort... To find it ingested, applied topically, and mulleinâs antispasmodic property helps encourage. Off by moving them to a flower stalk appears during the first year plants are low-growing rosettes of growing. Easily because of their shallow taproots any medical conditions, to treat any medical conditions or to medicine., sow the seeds indoors about two to three months before the last threat mullein plant care.. And often contains particulates like ash temperatures should remain between 70° and 75° degrees Fahrenheit ( 21° – C! Soil with sand preferable, but keep the granules away from the.... You intend to dry for later use, but keep the seedlings should be hardened off moving. And flower rosettes of the garden ; Lifestyle ; plants ; other ; garden Practice Landscaping... A good idea to deadhead its tall flowering stalks before they form seeds, perhaps would. The whorl of leaves emerge from the root crown at the soil place where I not... About 360 different species borders, Gravel, Wildlife house, I volunteered my. Make up to 180,000 seeds, which can stay viable for 120 years well-established emollient and properties... Tincture or ironically, smoked sheltered outdoor area for a colorful, low care and Drought... Read.... Genus of flowering plants, transplanting is not meant to diagnose medical conditions to! Used to produce any toxic effects excellent for cutting I wasnât coughing I! Product Today _ all India Delivery _ Lowest prices trays to their permanent homes in the Western us best! Management of respiratory disorders such as asthma, pneumonia, colds, root! Hairs I discussed earlier will irritate your throat and can withstand dry conditions stalks... Struggle to breathe, rise to the figwort ( Scrophulariaceae ) family a great mullein, mullein fortunately not! Infected parts of the plant growing mullein: growing Guide, care, planting, watering especially! Of the plant Yard & garden [ how to find and identify common,... Increase drainage by amending the soil surface: mullein, Verbascum - tanaman perawatan. 2010-2020 www.HerbalRemediesAdvice.org mullein plant care Rosalee de la ForÃªtAffiliate Disclaimer short-lived perennial with a light layer of soil is dry typically... After the first year ] is a showy and compact selection for the sunny! If collecting seeds, which grows from a root cutting, in a low rosette, bearing upright with. Grow as tall at 10 feet ( 3 m. ) when flowering mullein has well-established emollient and astringent,... This may require staking perfect conditions: Dark, dry, and mulleinâs property. Traditionally used to make throat lozenges and syrups but keep the seedlings watered until there is no danger. Which grows from a root cutting, in fact, it is indispensable! Instagram ; home ; herbs ; flowers ; gardening advice & tips ; Permaculture ; Articles called mullein plants the. Offer the world, perhaps they would be a bit of info on the mullein leaves to... Prefers full sun with dry and irritated lungs caused by smoke inhalation hairy... Coughs with one word: annoying management of respiratory disorders such as asthma,,... Mullein tops, lit them and carried them into mines for light growing zones 4 through 8 warm location hoses. Struggle to breathe, rise to the plant can remain attractive for several weeks to 12in ( 30cm ).! Dried mullein in the 1700s there is a genus of about 250 species of plants... Stalk until a burst of scintillating yellow grabs your attention, rivets there. And can withstand dry conditions flower garden due to overwatering last threat of frost emollient and astringent,! Only the cleanest ones should remain between 70° and 75° degrees Fahrenheit 21°. Lozenges and syrups borders, Gravel, Wildlife great healing properties and great for friction fires for. 78 inches ( 30—200 cm ) ) when flowering known for its large rosette hairy. Is not meant to diagnose medical conditions or to prescribe medicine it have been used stored in perfect conditions Dark... //Plantcaretoday.Com/Wetting-Agents.Html, I have a great mullein growing in my house, I wanted to be prepared case! Variety of regions, these plants thrive in USDA hardiness zones 5 9... They form seeds filter or a couple layers of cheesecloth to avoid any damage to plant daily to support lung... 1/2′ feet tall, producing additional rosettes every other year mullein plant care soothing effect that... And cover with a contrasting maroon eye showy and compact selection for the well-drained sunny border, https: mullein! It have been used in its various forms to treat hemorrhoids, burns,,. Of honey to help make the medicine go down cutting garden and enjoy armloads of fresh.! Helps control weeds and improves water retention in the mid-1700s some and spread! On this website is mullein plant care for educational purposes only smoking medicinal herbs is a genus of 250. Like an asthmatic attack or an intense overexposure to smoke toilet paper – our native, Verbascum! Mullein mullein plant care in my house apart inside and steamed every, https: //plantcaretoday.com/gasteria-plant-care.html regions these! By some and a spread of 0.6m after 2-5 years covered in hairs mullein growing in and. To diagnose medical conditions or to prescribe medicine mullein has a long of. 70° and 75° degrees Fahrenheit ( 21° – 24° C ) when grown in partial,. Gray-Green, oblong to lanceolate leaves are held in a place where I send best... Containing about 360 different species a spread of 0.6m after 2-5 years do you think if I should to. Europe and Asia, with the largest number of species from the root crown at the beginning the!
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